Investigate the important ideas and achievements of scientists and philosophers in the Scientific Revolution and the Age of Enlightenment. (Strands: Geography, History, Economics)

    1. Identify the new theories of cosmology as described by Nicolaus Copernicus, Galileo Galilei, and Sir Isaac Newton.

    2. Compare and contrast the new methods of reasoning as demonstrated by Francis Bacon (inductive reasoning and the scientific method) and Rene Descartes (deductive reasoning).

    3. Contrast the opposing views of the Thomas Hobbes and John Locke concerning the domination of absolute governments.

    4. Differentiate the influences of developing democratic ideals as perceived by Charles de Montesquieu, Voltaire, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau.



    Analyze the causes of the French Revolution and its impact on Europe. (Strands: Civics, Civil Rights, Geography, History, Economics)

    1. Examine various opinions concerning the development of democratic ideals amidst the economic troubles of the French social classes.

    2. Explain the impact of the successful American Revolution on the French call for socialequality as expressed in the “Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen” (1789).

    3. Examine the geographic and political influence of Napoleon on the concepts of liberalism and nationalism that spread across Europe.

    4. Analyze the impact of the revolutionary period on the abolition of the Atlantic slave trade, the emancipation of Spanish America, and the issuance of the Monroe Doctrine by the United States.

    5. Evaluate the attempt to return Europe to the rule of absolutism as prescribed by the Congress of Vienna and the creation of the Concert of Europe.

    60 MS CCRS for the Social Studies



    Examine the origins, impact, and spread of the Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions. (Strands: Civics, Geography, History, Economics)

    1. Contrast the important factors that contributed to the beginnings of the Industrial Revolution in England, including a supportive government, inventive people, access to raw materials, and investment wealth.

    2. Examine important concepts and inventors during the Agricultural Revolution including Charles Townshend (crop rotation), John Deere (steel plow), Cyrus McCormick (mechanical reaper), and the Enclosure Movement.

    3. Evaluate important concepts and inventors during the Industrial Revolution including James Hargreaves (spinning jenny), Eli Whitney (cotton gin), and James Watt (steam engine), Thomas Edison (electrical innovations), and the Bessemer Process.

    4. Contrast factors that enhanced or impeded the spread of Industrial Revolution into Eastern Europe and the Far East.


    Analyze capitalism as the economic philosophy that developed as a result of the Industrial Revolution and compare economic reactions to capitalism including socialism and Marxism. (Strands: Civics, Geography, History, Economics)

    1. Compare and contrast the principles of capitalism as developed by economists Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, and David Ricardo.

    2. Examine socialist responses to the Industrial Revolution and the dominance of capitalism including the ideas of Henri Saint-Simon, Charles Fourier, Robert Owen, and the influence of unionism.

    3. Compare the development of “scientific socialism” by Karl Marx and Frederick Engels to utopian socialism and capitalism.


    Analyze the emergence of nationalism and its role in the nineteenth century revolutions, unification movements, and the emergence of multinational empires. (Strands: Civics, Civil Rights, Geography, History, Economics)

    1. Debate the failure of European monarchs to reestablish absolutism in the wake of the French Revolution during of the revolutionary period of 1848.

    2. Examine the shift in the European balance of power that emerged due to Italy’s unification, led by Count Camillo Cavour, and Germany’s unification, led by Otto von Bismarck.

    3. Analyze the characteristics that defined Russia, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire as multinational empires.

    4. Illustrate events in Russian history that propelled it into the twentieth century including the reign of the Romanov dynasty, Russian expansionism, and emancipation of the serfs.

    5. Examine the creation of the dual-monarchy of Austria-Hungary and the ethnic complexity of the Ottoman Empire in Asia and the European Balkan Peninsula.

    6. Compare the impact of modern societal changes that improved urban development during the nineteenth century.

    61 MS CCRS for the Social Studies



    Investigate the mass movement of rural-to- urban migration as a result of industrialization. (Strands: Civics, Civil Rights, Geography, History, Economics)

    1. Appraise government reactions to social problems including Britain’s and Germany’spassage of labor laws, early welfare, and insurance programs.

    2. Investigate major social problems and solutions caused by urban overcrowding and lack of environmental control, including the contributions of Baron Haussmann (city redesign), Edwin Chadwick (sanitary conditions), Louis Pasteur, and Joseph Lister (germ theory).

    3. Inspect modern intellectual movements and contributions that had international impact, including the ideas Charles Darwin (natural selection), Emmeline Pankhurst (women’ssuffrage), Marie Curie (radium), Sigmund Freud (psychoanalysis), and Albert Einstein (Atomic Theory of Relativity).


    Evaluate western imperialism as a force of global change, emphasizing its positive and negative impact on colonized peoples and lands. (Strands: Civics, Civil Rights, Geography, History, Economics)

    1. Appraise various social justifications for imperialism including the spread of Christianity, democratic ideals, education, and medical advances.

    2. Formulate various economics factors for imperialism including raw material / markets, employment for governing countries, and the concept of Social Darwinism as a justification for subjugation over imperial claims.

    3. Trace important events in Asian imperialism including the establishment of Chinese spheres of influence by western powers, British colonization of India, Opium War, Hawaiian annexation by the United States, U.S.-Filipino War, Boxer Rebellion, U. S. Open Door Policy, and Russo-Japanese War.

    4. Compare important events in the partition of Africa by European powers such as theFrench occupation of Algeria, Belgium’s claim to the Congo, construction of the Suez Canal, defeat of Italy by Ethiopia, Anglo-Boer Wars, and development of “apartheid” inSouth Africa.

    5. Inspect important events in Latin American imperialism by the United States including the Spanish-American War, issuance of the Roosevelt Corollary, and construction of the Panama Canal.

    62 MS CCRS for the Social Studies



    Examine the causes, effects, and significant events of World War I. (Strands: Civics, Geography, History, Economics)

    1. Contrast the primary causes of World War I, including the rise of militarism, alliance systems, nationalism, imperialism, and assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand.

    2. Examine the role of propaganda as a means to mobilize civilian populations during World War I, particularly evaluating the effect of prolonged trench-warfare (of attrition).

    3. Analyze the major geopolitical shift of United States’ foreign policy during World War I in order to “make the world safe for democracy,” marking the transition from a policy of isolation to an increased role in international affairs.

    4. Investigate the issues created by the Treaty of Versailles (1919), including its punitive stance toward Germany, the creation of the League of Nations, the mandate system, and the geopolitical changes that occurred following World War I.

    5. Evaluate the physical and economic destruction caused by World War I.


    Contrast the challenges of the interwar period, emphasizing the rise of totalitarian states. (Strands: Civics, Civil Rights, Geography, History, Economics)

    1. Analyze the Treaty of Versailles as an agent for unrest.

    2. Identify how the economic crisis of the Great Depression led to the rise of totalitarian

      dictators in Italy, Germany, and the U.S.S.R.

    3. Justify how the effects of the Great Depression impacted the relationships between the

      United States and foreign nations, including: the Dawes Plan in Germany and soured

      relations in Latin America.

    4. Evaluate the world-wide decolonization movement, addressing nationalism, democracy,

      and religious influences pertaining to international conflicts, including: the independence movements within the British Empire, the French Algerian War, and Arab-Israeli conflicts.

    5. Examine how civil wars in Russia and China led to the growth and spread of Communism, including: the rise of Vladimir Lenin and the Bolsheviks in Russia and Mao Zedong in China.

    6. Analyze Japanese militarism and territorial expansion, including: Manchuria and the Rape of Nanjing.

    63 MS CCRS for the Social Studies



    Compare and contrast the causes, effects, and significant events of World War II.
    (Strands: Civics, Civil Rights, Geography, History, Economics)

    1. Analyze totalitarian aggression by Germany, Italy, Japan, and the Soviet Union, and examine how the administrations of Hitler, Mussolini, Hirohito, and Stalin prompted the outbreak of war.

    2. Illustrate the major turning points of World War II in both the European and Pacific theatres, including: the German invasion of Poland, North African Campaign, Battle of Midway, Battle of Stalingrad, D-Day Invasion, and Battle of the Bulge.

    3. Trace the geopolitical shifts following World War II, including the bi-polarization of Europe, the creation of Israel, and anti-Semitic responses.

    4. Explain how ongoing political and geographic disputes necessitated the creation of the United Nations to successfully maintain global order during periods of international unrest, including: the Atomic Era and the prevention of war crimes and “crimes againsthumanity.”


    Analyze the period of post-World War II recovery and realignment, emphasizing the social, economic, and political effects of the Cold War. (Strands: Civics, Civil Rights, Geography, History, Economics)

    1. Investigate the international development of the post-World War II world by analyzing various economic, political, and military shifts of the Cold War era, including: effects of the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan in Europe and Southeast Asia, nationalism in Africa and the Middle East, détente in China, and the fall of Communism in the Soviet Union.

    2. Formulate the development of the two Cold War superpowers--the United States and the Soviet Union; trace the origin of the Cold War through the Yalta and Potsdam Conferences, Marshall Plan, Truman Doctrine, "Iron Curtain," NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization), and Warsaw Pact.

    3. Analyze how American democracy and Soviet communism differed in their methods of ideological expansion, including: expansionist efforts of the Soviet Union versus America's policy of containment in Greece and Turkey, Eastern Europe, Germany, South Korea, Vietnam, etc.

    4. Trace the political movements of various nationalist groups and their leaders in Latin America, the Middle East, French-Indochina, and Africa, including: Fidel Castro in Cuba, Ho Chi Minh in Vietnam, Gamal Abdel Nasser in Egypt, etc.

    5. Illustrate the collapse of the Soviet Union; identify Russia's struggle for democracy, including the impact of liberalism, perestroika (free markets), glasnost (openness), and economic recovery brought on by Mikhail Gorbachev, Ronald Reagan, and Boris Yeltsin.

    64 MS CCRS for the Social Studies



    Debate the changing role of globalization in the contemporary world. (Strands: Civics, Civil Rights, Geography, History, Economics)

    1. Examine issues that helped advance civil and human rights, including the role of Nelson Mandela in South Africa and Martin Luther King Jr. in the United States; also address the impact of humanitarian military engagements such as the Balkan Wars in Kosovo and Bosnia.

    2. Examine OPEC’s dominance over the world’s oil market and its influence in determiningthe foreign policies of Middle Eastern nations, including: oil embargos, the Iranian Hostage Crisis, and the Gulf Wars.

    3. Analyze the aspects of modern domestic and global terrorism including the September 11th attack, the War in Afghanistan, and the rise of ISIS.

    4. Assess the impact of global reactions to immigration, national deficits, and anti-austerity movements, including the Arab Spring, British Brexit Movement, and the election of Donald Trump as President of the United States.

    5. Debate the impact of modern technology as a prompter of immediate reactions to government policies and discuss the influence of social media on various facets of society and culture.


    65 MS CCRS for the Social Studies